Pre-Dispersed Organo-Montmorillonite Nano Filler: Morphology, Cytocompatibility and Impact on Flexibility, Toughness and Biostability of Biomedical Ethyl Vinyl Acetate Copolymer

Significance Statement

Nano fillers are used to improve the performance of biomedical plastic, nanoclay a common nano filler are used as reinforcing material in polymer due to its ability to enhance strength, toughness, durability and barrier properties of the host polymer and still maintain its lightweight, flexibility, and clarity.

Obtaining a fully exfoliated and dispersion nanoclay is very challenging due to intrinsic incompatibility of the hydrophilic-layered clays and the hydrophobic engineering polymers. In overcoming this, the team introduced pre-dispersing procedure of the organically modified montmorillonite clay organo- montmorillonite, and they were successful.  To improve the quality of nanofiller exfoliation and dispersion, Azlin Osman and colleagues developed a flexible, tough and biostable biomedical ethyl vinyl acetate nanocomposite without the use of non-biomedical friendly additives such as plasticizer. Their recent work is now published in the journal Materials Science and Engineering.

The pre-dispersing process was carried out to obtain enhancement in flexibility, toughness, thermal stability and biostability of the ethyl vinyl acetate nanocomposite, as a new candidate for biomedical plastic. The exfoliation strategy of the organo- montmorillonite was investigated using two different types of dispersing method, that is magnetic stirring and ultrasonication. The authors used X-ray diffraction to examine the morphology of the nanofillers and nanocomposites. Tensile test was performed to evaluate the flexibility, modulus of elasticity, tensile toughness and strength of all the materials.

The pre-dispersing process of both ultrasonic and magnetic stirring methods was observed to slightly alter the diffraction intensity and shoulder shape of the organo- montmorillonite. The stirring using water medium produced better dispersed organo- montmorillonite. The researchers’ XRD and FTIR results, shows that the ultrasonication process using water medium is the most efficient method to disperse the organo- montmorillonite in the ethyl vinyl acetate copolymer.

Their studies proved that the addition of the pre-dispersed organo- montmorillonites (MMT(TL)_mg, MMT(W)_mg and MMT(W)2m_ut) into the ethyl vinyl acetate structure can retain the tensile strength of the copolymer. Moreover in the study,  MMT(W)2m_ut was the best nano filler to enhance the flexibility and toughness of the ethyl vinyl acetate as it showed the greatest efficiency to disperse and interact with the ethyl vinyl acetate copolymer. Furthermore, the cytocompatibility level of the MMT(W)2m_ut nanofiller was also improved as compared to its pristine state (non-pre-dispersed), increasing its potential for implant application.

The MMT(W)2m_ut nano filler and its respective nanocomposite possessed improved  exfoliation and dispersion of the organo- montmorillonite upon the pre-dispersing procedure resulting in an enhanced interactions with the ethyl vinyl acetate copolymer chains, thereby producing a more homogenous ethyl vinyl acetate nanocomposite system.

Pre-Dispersed Organo-Montmorillonite Nano Filler Morphology, Cytocompatibility and Impact on Flexibility, Toughness and Biostability of Biomedical Ethyl Vinyl Acetate Copolymer - Advances in Enginering

About The Author

Dr Azlin Fazlina Osman obtained her PhD degree in Nanotechnology from Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (AIBN), The University of Queenland, Australia. She is now a senior lecturer at School of Materials Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis and has recently appointed as Leader for Nanotechnology Group in Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology (CEGeoGTech), Universiti Malaysia Perlis.

Her research interests are in the field of biomedical polymer, nanotechnology, nanocomposites, biocomposites and structure-property relationships of materials.

About The Author

Tuty Fareyhynn Mohammed Fitri received Bachelor of Science (Hons) degree with First Class Honour in Applied Science (Polymer Technology) from Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia. She was then obtained Master of Science degree in Polymer Engineering under the supervision of Dr Azlin Fazlina Osman at School of Materials Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis.

About The Author

Dr Md Rakibuddin did his MSc from IIT Delhi and received his PhD in 2017 from IIT Kharagpur, India under the guidance of Prof. Rajakumar Ananthakrishnan. His PhD work was on development of porous nano metal oxides derived from nano coordination polymer and their hybrids for photocatalytic environmental remediation. He is currently a post-doctoral research fellow at the school of Materials science and Engineering, Yeungnum University, South Korea where he is working on designing of nanocomposite film for electrochromic devices and photocatalysis under Prof. H. K. Kim.

About The Author

Dr Fatimah Hashim is a senior lecturer in School of Fundamental Science, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu. Her research field is in Protozoology while her research interest covers the cytotoxicity study of substances on pathogenic amoeba and mammalian cells. Current research projects are on cytotoxicity study of synthesized compounds and plant extracts by in vitro and silico method as well as identification of unknown pathogenic amoeba from fish.

About The Author

Syed Ahmad Tajudin Tuan Johari received his first degree in Bachelor of Biotechnology (Hons) at Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) and MSc. Degree from Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin in 2013. He worked as Science Officer to assist lecturers in practical and research labs. Currently he is undertaking Ph.D. degree at Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT) in the field of Animal Cell Biotechnology.

About The Author

Dr Rafiza Ramli received her highest degree in Materials Engineering from the University Sains Malaysia in 2014, respectively and worked in Penchem Technologies for 10 years in R&D particularly synthesis, materials development for high advance materials for electronics application. Now, she joined Lumileds Malaysia Sdn Bhd and involved in materials development and characterization for LED application. Her research interest includes polymer development, characterization and reliability for electronic application.

Journal Reference

Azlin F. Osman1, Tuty Fareyhynn M Fitri2, Md Rakibuddin3, Fatimah Hashim4, Syed Ahmad Tajudin Tuan Johari5, Rajakumar Ananthakrishnan3, Rafiza Ramli6, Pre-Dispersed Organo-Montmorillonite (Organo-Mmt) Nano Filler: Morphology, Cytocompatibility and Impact on Flexibility, Toughness and Biostability of Biomedical Ethyl Vinyl Acetate (Eva) Copolymer, Materials Science and Engineering C 74 (2017) 194 –206.

Show Affiliations
  1. Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology (CEGeoGTech), School of Materials Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, 02600, Perlis, Malaysia. Electronic
  2. Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology (CEGeoGTech), School of Materials Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, 02600, Perlis, Malaysia
  3. Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, India
  4. School of Fundamental Science, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia
  5. School of Fundamental Science, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia; Faculty of Bioresources and Food Industry, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, 22200 Besut, Terengganu, Darul Iman, Malaysia
  6. Lumileds Malaysia Sdn Bhd, c, 11900 Bayan Lepas, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

 

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