Fossil-fuel-fired power plant

Publication number:           US20130192230 A1

Application number:           US 13/741,439

Publication date:                      Aug 1, 2013

Filing date:                  Jan 15, 2013

Inventors:                   Kunlei Liu, James K. Neathery

Applicant:                   The University Of Kentucky Research Foundation

 

ABSTRACT

A power plant includes a boiler, a stream turbine generator, a post combustion processing system, a feed water regeneration processing system and a heat exchanger. Heat from the heat exchanger is used to regenerate (a) a reagent that absorbs carbon dioxide from flue gas and (b) a water-lean desiccant used to increase plant operating efficiency.

 

SELECTED CLAIMS

1. A power plant comprising:

a boiler configured to receive fuel, feed-water, and an air stream, to combust the fuel, vaporizing the feed-water into steam, and to discharge a flue gas that includes carbon dioxide;

a steam turbine configured to receive the steam wherein the steam drives a load and said steam turbine discharges spent steam; and

a post-combustion processing system configured to process the flue gas and including;

a carbon dioxide scrubber for receiving the flue gas and contacting the flue gas with a reagent that absorbs carbon dioxide to form a spent absorbent reagent,

a primary stripper for receiving the spent absorbent reagent and stripping at least a portion of the carbon dioxide from the spent absorbent reagent to form a first regenerated reagent; and

a secondary stripper for receiving the first regenerated reagent and stripping at least a portion of the carbon dioxide from the first regenerated reagent to form a second regenerated reagent, said secondary stripper having a first line to return the second regenerated reagent to the carbon dioxide scrubber to be recycled as the reagent, and a second line to return at least a portion of the carbon dioxide stripped from the first regenerated reagent to the air stream being received by said boiler.

2. The power plant of claim 1, wherein the secondary stripper is configured to receive ambient air of the power plant for contacting the first regenerated reagent with the ambient air, thereby stripping at least a portion of the carbon dioxide from the first regenerated reagent.

3. The power plant of claim 1, wherein the primary stripper is connected to a reboiler that is configured to vaporize the spent absorbent reagent into reagent steam and supply the reagent steam to the primary stripper, and the primary stripper is configured to receive the reagent steam and contact the spent absorbent reagent with the reagent steam, whereupon at least a portion of the carbon dioxide is stripped from the spent absorbent reagent, thereby forming the first regenerated reagent.

4. The power plant of claim 1 further including a stripper heat recovery unit receiving said first regenerated reagent and vapors evolved from said primary stripper whereby heat is recovered from said vapors in said first regenerated reagent.

5. The power plant of claim 5, further including a compressor, said compressor receiving said vapors from said primary stripper and compressing said vapors for downstream utilization or sequestration.

6. The power plant of claim 5 further including a rich-lean crossover heat exchanger for exchanging heat between said spent absorbent reagent and said first regenerated reagent between said primary stripper and said secondary stripper.

7. The power plant of claim 1 further including:

a condenser configured to receive said spent stream and a coolant, whereupon said spent stream is condensed to form feed-water and said coolant is warmed to form a warmed coolant;

at least one heat exchanger for exchanging heat that is associated with one or more processes of the power plant; and

a cooling tower for receiving warmed coolant, cooling air that includes moisture and a water-lean desiccant, said cooling tower contacting said water-lean desiccant with cooling air thereby stripping at least a portion of the moisture from the cooling air to form dried cooling air and a water rich desiccant;

wherein the dried cooling air contacts and cools the warmed coolant, the water-rich desiccant is discharged to the heat exchanger and heated at the heat exchanger to form a water-lean desiccant and the water-lean desiccant is returned to said cooling tower.

8. The power plant of claim 7, wherein at least one heat exchanger includes a stripper heat recovery unit receiving said first regenerated reagent, water-rich desiccant from said cooling tower and vapors evolved from said primary stripper whereby heat is recovered from said vapors in said first regenerated reagent and said water-rich desiccant.

9. The power plant of claim 8, further including a water-lean desiccant regeneration unit, said water-rich desiccant being directed serially from said cooling tower through said stripper heat recovery unit and (b) said water-lean desiccant regeneration unit where water is removed from said water-rich desiccant to form said water-lean desiccant that is then returned to said cooling tower.

10. The power plant of claim 9 wherein said water-lean desiccant regeneration unit includes a scavenging air inlet.

11. The power plant of claim 10 wherein said scavenging air inlet is connected to a source of flue gas.

12. A power plant comprising:

a boiler configured to receive fuel, feed-water, and an air stream, and to combust the fuel, vaporizing the feed-water into steam;

a steam turbine configured to receive the steam, wherein the steam drives a load, and the steam turbine discharges spent steam;

a condenser configured to receive spent steam and a coolant, whereupon the spent steam is condensed to form feed-water, and the coolant is warmed to form a warmed coolant;

at least one heat exchanger for exchanging heat that is associated with one or more processes of the power plant; and

a cooling tower for receiving the warmed coolant, cooling air that includes moisture, and a desiccant, the cooling tower adapted to contact the desiccant with the cooling air, thereby stripping at least a portion of the moisture from the cooling air to form a dried cooling air and a water-rich desiccant,

wherein the dried cooling air contacts and cools the warmed coolant, the water-rich desiccant is discharged to at least one heat exchanger and heated to form a heated water-rich desiccant.

13. The power plant of claim 12 further comprising a water-lean desiccant regeneration unit for receiving the heated water-rich desiccant and at least a portion of the flue gas, whereupon the water-rich desiccant is further heated with heat supplied from the flue gas and thereby stripped of at least a portion of the water before being returned to the cooling tower.

14. The power plant of claim 14, wherein said at least one heat exchanger is a stripper heat recovery unit, whereby water-rich desiccant is serially directed from said cooling tower through said (a) stripper heat recovery unit and (b) said water-lean desiccant regeneration unit where water is removed from said water-rich desiccant to form said water-lean desiccant that is then returned to said cooling tower.

15. The power plant of claim 14, wherein said cooling tower includes a top section for receiving warmed coolant from said condenser and a bottom section for receiving cooling air including moisture and said water-lean desiccant whereby said cooling air is stripped of at least a portion of said moisture thereby forming a dried cooling air and said water-rich desiccant in said cooling tower.

16. The power plant of claim 15 further including a water-rich desiccant reservoir positioned under said bottom section of said cooling tower.

17. A power plant comprising:

a boiler that produces steam;

a steam turbine driven by said steam;

a pot-combustion processing system including

(a) a carbon dioxide scrubber for contacting flue gas received from said boiler with a reagent that absorbs carbon dioxide;

(b) a primary stripper; and

(c) a secondary stripper downstream from said primary stripper and upstream from said carbon dioxide scrubber;

a feed-water regeneration system for converting spent steam from said steam turbine to feedwater for said boiler, said feedwater regeneration system including: (a) a cooling tower and (b) a water-lean desiccant regeneration unit; and

a heat exchanger for removing heat from vapors evolved from said primary stripper.

18. The power plant of claim 17 wherein said heat exchanger includes a water-rich desiccant inlet and a heated water-rich desiccant outlet.

19. The power plant of claim 17, wherein said heat exchanger includes a first regenerated reagent inlet and a reheated first regenerated reagent outlet.

20. The power plant of claim 17, wherein said heat exchanger includes a water-rich desiccant inlet and a heated water-rich desiccant outlet and a first regenerated reagent inlet and a reheated first regenerated reagent outlet.

 

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