Methods for perforating graphene using an activated gas stream and perforated graphene produced therefrom

Publication number US20130249147 A1
Application number US 13/795,276
Publication date Sep 26, 2013
Filing date Mar 12, 2013
Inventors Peter V. Bedworth
Original Assignee Lockheed Martin Corporation

ABSTRACT
Graphene sheets having a plurality of holes in their basal planes are described herein. Methods for making the graphene sheets can involve contacting graphene sheets with an activated gas that has contacted a helium or argon atmospheric pressure plasma. The size and/or number of holes introduced can be altered by changing the contact time, the stand-off distance, the activated gas concentration, and/or the plasma power. Polymer composites containing the perforated graphene sheets are also described.

CLAIMS
What is claimed is:
1. A method for perforating graphene, comprising:
exposing a stream of gas into plasma to generate an activated gas stream; directing said activated gas stream toward a graphene sheet; and perforating said graphene sheet with said activated gas stream.
2. The method according to claim 1, further comprising:
controlling application of said activated gas stream to said graphene sheet to obtain desired aperture sizes in said graphene sheet.
3. The method according to claim 2, further comprising: forming a composite sheet of said graphene sheet and a metallic substrate prior to said perforating step.
4. The method according to claim 2, further comprising: forming a composite sheet of said graphene sheet and a polymeric substrate after said perforating step.
5. The method according to claim 1, further comprising:obtaining a desired aperture size of less than 5 nm in diameter.
6. The method according to claim 1, further comprising: obtaining a desired aperture size of less than 10 nm in diameter.
7. The method according to claim 1, further comprising: obtaining a desired aperture size of less than 1.5 nm in diameter.
8. The method according to claim 1, further comprising: obtaining desired aperture sizes ranging from about 0.5 nm to about 1.5 nm in size.
9. The method according to claim 1, further comprising: adjusting an amount of time said activated gas stream is applied to said graphene sheet so as to obtain a desired range of aperture sizes.
10. The method according to claim 1, further comprising: adjusting a stand off distance between said activated gas stream and said graphene sheet so as to obtain a desired range of aperture sizes in said graphene sheet.
11. The method according to claim 1, further comprising: adjusting a distance between said activated gas stream and said graphene sheet so as to obtain a desired aperture size in said graphene sheet.
12. The method according to claim 1, further comprising: adjusting a contact residence time of said activated gas stream upon said graphene sheet so as to obtain a desired aperture size in said graphene sheet.
13. The method according to claim 1 further comprising: adjusting an amount of plasma power applied to said activated gas stream so as to obtain a desired aperture size in said graphene sheet.
14. The method according to claim 1, further comprising: selecting one of oxygen, nitrogen or combinations thereof as said activated gas; and utilizing no more than 3% active gas in said activated gas stream.
15. The method according to claim 1, further comprising: obtaining a desired aperture size in said graphene sheet by adjusting at least one of the following:
an amount of time said activated gas stream is applied to said graphene sheet;
a distance between said activated gas stream and said graphene sheet;
a contact residence time of said activated gas stream upon said graphene sheet; and
an amount of plasma power applied to said activated gas stream.