The impact of click-in nanoparticles portends revolutionary improvements in nanocomposite design. This is particularly important for dielectric capacitors applications, but contribute to strengthening a material for any function where there is extreme electrical or mechanical loading on the mesoscopic material. Failure in nanocomposites occurs at incoherent interfaces, with their many defects and dangling bonds that act as a concentrator for electric field gradient due to the discontinuous transition from ceramic to polymer. By bonding the ceramic directly into the polymer matrix, electrical continuity is enabled, reducing the local charge concentration in turn increasing the breakdown strength. From a manufacturing perspective, the use of monomer inks and dispersed nanoparticles allow the aforementioned high performance nanometric control to be used in roll-to-roll processing, enabling low production costs and low $/kWh storage cost. The methodology used in this work will be the basis for future dielectric nanocomposite design as we advance materials to greater energy densities, disrupting the current energy storage market.
Brian C. Riggs*, Ravinder Elupula, Caroline Rehm, Shiva Adireddy, Scott M. Grayson, , Douglas B. Chrisey*
Tulane University, 6232 St. Charles Ave, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118, United States.
Polymer–ceramic nanocomposites have been thoroughly investigated previously for high energy storage devices. However, the increase in performance of these nanocomposites has proven to be significantly lower than predicted values. Through surface functionalization of high dielectric constant nanoparticles (NP), the flaws that reduce composite performance can be eliminated to form high energy density composite materials. Functionalization methods utilize high throughput printing and curing techniques (i.e., inkjet printing and xenon flash lamp curing) that are crucial for rapid adoption into industrial production. (Ba,Ca) (Zr,Ti)O3NPs (50 nm) are synthesized through the solvothermal method and functionalized with alkene terminated methoxysilanes. A thiol−ene monomer ink system, PTD3 [pentaerythritol tetrakis (3-mercaptopropionate) (PEMP, P), 1,3-Diisopropenylbenzene (DPB, D), 2,4,6-Triallyloxy-1,3,5-triazine (TOTZ, T)], is used as a high breakdown polymer matrix. Neat polymer, alkene terminated NP–polymer composites, and hydrophilic, TBAOH functionalized NP–polymer composites were spin coated onto both copper laminated glass slides and printed onto copper substrates in 1 cm2 patterns for testing. Alkene functionalized NPs increased the breakdown strength by ∼38% compared to the nonfunctionalized NPs. Functionalized NPs increased both the breakdown strength and dielectric constant compared to the neat polymer, increasing the energy density nearly 3-fold from 13.3 to 36.1 J·cm–3.
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