Harmonizing Energies: Pioneering the Future of Multi-Energy System Dynamics


Multi-energy (ME) systems refer to the integrated and coordinated use of different forms of energy, such as electricity, heat, gas, and renewables, within a single framework or infrastructure. These systems are designed to enhance energy efficiency, reduce environmental impact, and improve the resilience and reliability of energy supply. ME systems combine various energy sources like solar, wind, natural gas, and electricity. This integration allows for more efficient use of resources as different energy types can complement each other. These systems often include technologies for energy storage (like batteries or thermal storage) and conversion (such as heat pumps or electrolyzers for hydrogen production), enabling the flexible use of energy in different forms.  Advanced control systems, often powered by artificial intelligence and machine learning, are used for optimizing the operation, distribution, and consumption of different energy types in real-time. ME systems can significantly improve overall energy efficiency because they utilize waste heat from one process for another (like using waste heat from electricity generation for heating), The diversity of energy sources in ME systems can enhance resilience against supply disruptions and adaptability to changing energy demands or market conditions. Moreover, by optimizing the use of renewables and reducing reliance on fossil fuels, ME systems can help in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental impacts. Although they can be complex and costly to implement, ME systems can offer long-term economic benefits through improved efficiency and reduced energy costs.

In a new study published in the Journal Frontiers in Energy Research led by Professor Shuqing Zhang, Xianfa Hu, Shaopu Tang from the Electrical Engineering Department, Tsinghua University together with Xianggang He from the Power Grid Planning Research Center at Guizhou Power Grid Co Ltd and Haibo Li and Donghui Zhang from the Tsinghua Sichuan Energy Internet Research Institute presented a detailed investigation on the dynamic coupling in ME systems, specifically focusing on the interaction and integration of different forms of energy such as electrical, thermal, and gas energies. The authors highlighted the challenges in modeling and simulating dynamic coupling in ME systems and proposed novel approaches for effective analysis and simulation.

The team began by thoroughly analyzing the structural components and model characteristics of various energy forms within ME systems. This included examining the elements and components, system structure, and features of models and algorithms for ME components. A significant part of the study was dedicated to understanding the mechanisms of dynamic coupling across different energy forms. This involved studying the conversion relations among different energy forms, structural characteristics of ME coupling, and the time scale and intensity of interaction and coupling. The researchers proposed key techniques for hybrid simulation across energy forms. This included developing a subsystem partitioning scheme, ME coupling modeling, and interface equivalent modeling. They also focused on variables and sequences for hybrid simulation interaction.

The authors highlighted how different forms of energy interact and transform within these systems, providing a comprehensive view of the dynamic interactions. They also introduced an innovative hybrid simulation approach, which is a major advancement in modeling and simulating dynamic interactions in ME systems. This approach allows for more accurate and efficient simulation of these complex systems. The implications of this research are extensive for practical applications. It offers a pathway to optimize energy distribution and consumption, leading to more efficient and sustainable energy management. The findings are crucial for policymakers and industry stakeholders, offering them insights to develop strategies that effectively leverage the interconnectedness of different energy forms. Moreover, this research lays the groundwork for further studies and technological developments in the field of energy systems, particularly in enhancing the operational efficiency and sustainability of ME systems.

In summary, the new study by Professor Shuqing Zhang and colleagues provided a comprehensive and detailed analysis of dynamic coupling in multi-energy systems, introducing new methodologies for simulation and offering insights with significant practical and industrial implications.

Harmonizing Energies: Pioneering the Future of Multi-Energy System Dynamics - Advances in Engineering

About the author

Shuqing Zhang, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Secretary General, IEEE PES Committee on Power System Operation, Planning, Economy and Technology (China), and Associate Editor, Frontiers in Energy Research.

His research interests include multi-physical and multi-scale modeling and simulation of power systems, stability analysis and control of AC and DC power grids, and stability analysis of high-proportion new energy power systems.

In recent years, he has been responsible for or participated in the following research projects: Multi-dc drop-point center load transient voltage analysis and converter optimization design research, flexible DC flexible access and multi-type DC feed system stability characteristics research, through the same phase traction power supply system, based on multi-mode joint trial simulation and control strategy flexible reconstruction of system protection test and verification technology research, large-scale new energy DC feed system fault crossing capability analysis and improvement Program research, etc.


Zhang S, Hu X, He X, Tang S, Li H and Zhang D (2023), Dynamic coupling across energy forms and hybrid simulation of the multi-energy system. Front. Energy Res. 11:1209845. doi: 10.3389/fenrg.2023.1209845

Go to Front. Energy Res.

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