Boron-doped diamond powder (BDDP)-based polymer composites for dental treatment using flexible pinpoint electrolysis unit

Significance Statement

In their efforts to help dentists in a more reliable way of treating the human oral disease, Tsuyoshi Ochiai and colleagues show more improvement to the conventional ‘root canal therapy’ which at the end of the treatment, some bacteria will still be found in the treated teeth and this can lead to cancer.  The study is published in Electrochemistry Communications.

The authors introduced new equipment with boron-doped diamond (BDD) as there first research with the aim of solving dental treatment challenges but the introduced BDD was found to be inflexible and it peels easily from its substrates. This led to a further research where a more effective dental treatment called boron-doped diamond powder (BDDP) was developed.

The polymer composite was prepared by mixing BDDP and an ion-exchange polymer dispersion solution at ratio 2:1. The surface of the BDDP is been wound with ion-exchange membrane so as to trap the ribbon. A direct current (DC) of 7.5 V was applied between the base material and the ribbon in the root canal.

From the test, it was gathered that the BDDP/polymer composite resulted in a dense and uniform BDDP film surface. After passing a voltage between the anode and the cathode, the electrolytic water decompose into:

Anode              3H2O →  O3 + 6H+ + 6e

Cathode           6H+ + 6e  →   3H2     

From this electrolysis, Ozone (O3), hydroxyl radicals (•OH) are derived. This test shows that the BDDP/polymer composite is durable and hardly crack or peel when under use in the electrolysis process.

The difference between three set of treatment groups was also compared. That is positive control group, negative control group and the treatment by the electrolysis. Out of which the treatment by the electrolysis has the highest number of reduction rate. The research team was able to prove that electrochemically generated NaOCl and ozone enriched gas bubbled into the saline possess an antimicrobial which help against and produce biofilm. Root canals extraction of the human teeth with biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis was also carried out successfully. They confirm that the biofilm was removed completely.

The present fabrication method is useful for electrochemical applications. The authors concluded that the ozone gas delivered into the root canal can be useful. Electrolysis is safe to use and does not causes any dental damages to the root canal. Composite BDDP shows an excellent durability and do not bend during electrolysis. This article also reveal the ability of the electrolysis not to generate active oxygen which is of great important to the dental world.

 

 Boron-doped diamond powder (BDDP)-based polymer composites for dental treatment using flexible pinpoint electrolysis unit (advances in Engineering)

About the author

Tsuyoshi Ochiai has been Senior Researcher of the Materials Characterization Center and Vice Leader of the Photocatalyst Group at the Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology, Kanagawa, Japan. He has also been a Visiting Associate Professor of Photocatalysis International Research Center at Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo, Japan, since 2013. Photoelectrochemistry and environmental chemistry are his major research areas.

Many of his current research and development projects are related to environmental purification. Based on it, already many products, such as photocatalytic filter materials and air-purifiers, have been released by fruitful cooperation with the companies. He completed a doctoral course at the Nagoya Institute of Technology Graduate School of Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and gained a Ph.D. degree in engineering in 2008. From April 2005 to March 2008, he worked for the Central Japan Railway Company as a research engineer in the Functional Materials Team, Technical Research and Development Department, General Technology Division. Since April 2014, he has also been an Adjunct Lecturer at the Hosei University, Tokyo, Japan.

He is a Secretary of the Electrochemical Society of Japan, Kanto branch, which has played and will continue to play a vital role in advancing improvements in efficient energy conversion, energy storage, environmental sensing and monitoring, and green chemistry and manufacturing. He is also an Editorial Board Member of International Journal of Photoenergy. He was awarded the Young Researcher Award of The Electrochemical Society of Japan (Sano Award) in 2014. 

 

Journal Reference

Tsuyoshi Ochiai1,2,3 ,Shoko Tago2, Mio Hayashi2, Kazuo Hirota4, Takeshi Kondo3, Kazuhito Satomura5, Akira Fujishima2,3. Boron-doped diamond powder (BDDP)-based polymer composites for dental treatment using flexible pinpoint electrolysis unit.  Electrochemistry Communications, Volume 68, 2016, Pages 49–53.

Show Affiliations
  1. Materials Characterization Center, Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology, Ground Floor East Wing, Innovation Center Building, 3-2-1 Sakado, Takatsu-ku, Kawasaki City, Kanagawa 213-0012, Japan.
  2. Photocatalyst Group, Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology, 407 East Wing, Innovation Center Building, 3-2-1 Sakado, Takatsu-ku, Kawasaki City, Kanagawa 213-0012, Japan.
  3. Photocatalysis International Research Center, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda City, Chiba 278-8510, Japan.
  4. Research Laboratory of Materials & Equipment for Oral Health Care, Inc., 2F-G03 THINK Keihin Building, 1-1 Minamiwatarida-cho, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki City, Kanagawa 210-0855, Japan.
  5. Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dental Medicine, Tsurumi University, 2-1-3 Tsurumi, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa 230-8501, Japan.

 

 

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