Characterization of Emissions of Condensable Particulate Matter in Clinker Kilns

Significance 

Condensable particulate matter is considered to be among the 2.5 µm particulate matter which are mainly produced in industrial combustion processes, such as cement clinkers and coal-powered electricity production plants. In the past few decades there has been significant advances in terms of creating policies aimed at curbing emissions. More so, stricter emission thresholds have been imposed as the damage caused by the micro-sized particulate matter begin to take toll on human health. Moreover, the condensable particulate matter has been seen to be the major contributor to the total mass of fine particles present in the air that we breathe. Unfortunately, these inhalable micro-sized particles have not been properly studied in terms of their ideal measuring methods and characterization.

Mercedes Cano and colleagues at University of Seville in Spain proposed a study where they employed dilution system to provide high accuracy and representative condensable particulate matter emission measurements for samples obtained from clinker kilns. They hoped to characterize the nature and morphology of the condensable particulate matter taken from source for a specific fuel. Their work is now published in the research journal, Energy Fuels.

The researchers initiated their measurements at the clinker production plant. They noted that the fuels used in the clinkering process were petroleum coke, as the main fuel, or alternative fuels and fuel oil, the latter being used for startup operations. They then set up the modified dilution-based sampling train as proposed by standard CTM-039. The researchers then applied United States Environmental Protection Agency techniques where the various provided methods were used.

The authors observed that the measured concentrations were relatively small compared to the emission limits for filterable particles that are applicable to these plants, currently set at 30 mg/Nm3. From the morphological analysis, the researchers were able to observe that from the different tests performed, the average size of the particles was 2 µm and their distribution over the surface of the filter was quite homogeneous. The team also noted that mercury and chlorine were present in the condensable particulate matter deposited in the filters. Trace amounts of other elements were also detected.

The work compiled by Mercedes Cano and coworkers presents comprehensive results obtained from condensable particulate matter concentration measurements taken at the source of combustion gas emissions in an industrial clinker kiln, using an innovative sampling train developed at the University of Seville. By applying adequate analytical techniques, the researchers were able to characterize the nature of the condensable particulate matter emitted at the facility and its morphology, thereby obtaining erratic results, depending upon the nature of the fuel in question, the raw material used in the process, and the different operating modes of the system. Therefore, their study ratifies that clinker production plants emit condensable particulate matter in concentrations that are below the current legal limits for particle emissions in the studied kind of facility, although they are, for the most part, higher than the typical emissions of filterable particles.

Characterization of Emissions of Condensable Particulate Matter in Clinker Kilns Using a Dilution Sampling System. Advances in Engineering

About the author

Benito Navarrete holds an MSc in Industrial (Chemical) Engineering from the School of Engineering, University of Seville (1989), Spain and a PhD from the same School (2000). He is graduated in Environmental Engineering from EOI (Spanish Ministry of Industry 1991). He is full Professor in the Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Seville.

Prof. Navarrete has performed R&D on technological issues related to environmental fields in two main areas: control and optimization of combustion in coal power plants and new developments for the reduction of pollutant emissions in large combustion plants, mainly particulate matter, NOx and SO2 . Currently he is involved in projects related to advanced carbon capture systems for coal and biomass, including post and oxy-combustion systems.

He has been Assistant Director of the CO2 Capture Programme of CIUDEN (2007-2013), a state-owned foundation owner of a world-wide reference centre for Carbon Capture and Storage development and validation in northwestern Spain, incorporating an integrated oxy-combustion facility for carbon capture and deputy director of the Ciuden-Ule Institute in CCS Technologies (2009-2014). Prof. Navarrete is currently director of the CEPSA Energy Chair of the University of Seville.

About the author

Fernando Vega finished his PhD in Chemical Engineering in 2016 at the School of Engineering belonged to the University of Seville. He has been working on the field carbon capture technologies since 2007. Currently, his research is focused on the development of partial oxy-combustion capture process, which consists of a hybrid CO2 capture technology between post-combustion and oxy-combustion. In particular, his research work involves pilot plant experiences, process integration and solvent degradation under partial oxy-combustion conditions in order to address the main drawbacks that constrain the deployment of this CCS technology. Currently, he is part of the staff involved in the OXYSOLVENT project, funding by Spanish Government, which aims at carrying out several test campaigns in our CO2 capture pilot plant facility. During his career, Fernando has also worked on several projects related to coal combustion optimization, industrial process development CFD simulation and clean fossil fuels technologies. He has been teaching at the School of Engineering since 2009 as a part of the Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department staff.

About the author

Jose Antonio Camino finished his lab technician certificate of Higher Education (HNC) at the Technical College of Seville in 2007. In this year, he got a two-years contract in the process and environmental engineering enterprise Inerco Ltd., in which he worked in flue gas characterization as an environment inspector. Following that, he started a collaboration as a member of the Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department of the University of Seville. In this time, he collaborated in the development and operation of a condensable particulate matter (CPM) dilution sampling train in the frame of the O2GEN project.

In this project, he was involved in several tasks related to the characterization of the flue gas composition from a circulating fluidized bed boiler placed in CIUDEN facilities, including CO2, O2, H2O, NO, NO2, SO2, Hg, HCl, particulate matter and CPM determination.  In parallel, he was also involved in several projects related to the erection and commissioning of a CO2 capture pilot plant, which aimed at developing a novel CCS technology based on partial oxy-combustion technology. Currently, he is involved in the OXYSOLVENT project which aims at carrying out several test campaigns at the CO2 capture pilot plant. The project will finish in the mid of 2018.

About the author

Mercedes Cano is an assistant professor at the Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, University of Seville. She obtained her BSc. degree in Chemical Engineering in 2007. During 2007, she was also beneficiary of a predoctoral fellowship attached to excellence research projects, granted by the Council for Innovation, Science and Commerce from the Andalusian Government. In 2009, she finished her MSc. degree in Chemical and Environmental Technology at the University of Seville. Following that, in 2015 she received her PhD in Chemical and Environmental Technology on the topic “Measuring system for condensable particulate matter from flue gases”.

Additionally, during her career, Mercedes has been working on new developments for the reduction of pollutant emissions in large combustion plants since 2007. She was also involved on several projects related to advanced carbon capture systems for coal based on partial oxy-combustion technology. Currently, her research career is focused on the characterization of condensable particulate matter (CPM) emissions in different types of industrial combustion process. In particular, she is working in the development and operation of a condensable particulate matter dilution sampling train patented as WO2017068208 A1.

Reference

M. Cano, F. Vega, B. Navarrete, A. Plumed, and J. A. Camino. Characterization of Emissions of Condensable Particulate Matter in Clinker Kilns Using a Dilution Sampling System. Energy Fuels 2017, 31, 7831−7838.

 

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