Development of millimeter-size flat lens


Unlike electronic devices, which have gotten smaller and more efficient over the years, the design and underlying physics of today’s optical lenses haven’t changed much for decades. This challenge has caused a bottleneck in the development of next-generation optical systems such as wearable displays for virtual reality, which require compact, lightweight, and cost-effective components.

At the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS), a team of researchers led by Federico Capasso, the Robert L. Wallace Professor of Applied Physics and Vinton Hayes Senior Research Fellow in Electrical Engineering, has been developing the next generation of lenses that promise to open that bottleneck by replacing bulky curved lenses with a simple, flat surface that uses nanostructures to focus light. Previously the same research team developed achromatic, aberration-free metalenses that work across the entire visible spectrum of light. But these lenses were only tens of microns in diameter, too small for practical use in VR and augmented reality systems. Now, the researchers have developed a two-millimeter achromatic metalenses that can focus RGB (red, blue, green) colors without aberrations and developed a miniaturized display for virtual and augmented reality applications. The research is now published in Science Advances.

Using new physics and a new design principle, the authors developed a flat lens to replace the bulky lenses of today’s optical devices. Their work resulted in the largest RGB-achromatic metalens to date and is a proof of concept that these lenses can be scaled up to centimeter size, mass produced, and integrated in commercial platforms. Like previous metalenses, this lens uses arrays of titanium dioxide nanofins to equally focus wavelengths of light and eliminate chromatic aberration. By engineering the shape and pattern of these nanoarrays, the researchers could control the focal length of red, green and blue color of light. To incorporate the lens into a VR system, the team developed a near-eye display using a method called fiber scanning. The display, inspired by fiber-scanning-based endoscopic bioimaging techniques, uses an optical fiber through a piezoelectric tube. When a voltage is applied onto the tube, the fiber tip scans left and right and up and down to display patterns, forming a miniaturized display. The display has high resolution, high brightness, high dynamic range, and wide color gamut.

In a VR or AR platform, the metalens would sit directly in front of the eye, and the display would sit within the focal plane of the metalens. The patterns scanned by the display are focused onto the retina, where the virtual image forms, with the help of the metalens. To the human eye, the image appears as part of the landscape in the AR mode, some distance from our actual eyes.

The study has successfully demonstrated how meta-optics platforms can help resolve the bottleneck of current VR technologies and potentially be used in our daily life. Future studies will be aimed at scaling up the lens even further, making it compatible with current large-scale fabrication techniques for mass production at a low cost.

Development of next generation of millimeter-size flat lens - Advances in Engineering
FIGURE: A metalens fabricated on 2-inch glass wafer (left) and a scanning fiber mounted through a piezo tube (right). The fiber tip locates within the focal length of the metalens. Light travels along the fiber and emits out from the scanning fiber tip, where a display pattern forms. Credit: Zhaoyi Li/Harvard University.
Development of next generation of millimeter-size flat lens - Advances in Engineering
FIGURE: Credit: Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Science

About the author

Federico Capasso

He is currently on the faculty of Harvard University. He has co-authored over 450 papers, edited four volumes, and holds over 60 US patents. His research interests cover solid-state physics, physical optics, nonlinear optics, and quantum electronics. He has investigated artificial semiconductor materials using the atomic scale control of composition and layer thickness made possible by molecular beam epitaxy. By tailoring the quantum behavior of electrons in nanometer thick layers. More recently His team demonstrated quantum cascade lasers in which the wavelength can be tailored over a wide range of the infrared spectrum by changing layer thickness.


Zhaoyi Li, Peng Lin, Yao-Wei Huang, Joon-Suh Park, Wei Ting Chen, Zhujun Shi, Cheng-Wei Qiu, Ji-Xin Cheng, Federico Capasso. Meta-optics achieves RGB-achromatic focusing for virtual reality. Science Advances  2021: Vol. 7, no. 5, eabe4458, DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abe4458

Go To Science Advances

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