New perspectives on impact damaging of thermoset- and thermoplastic-matrix composites from thermographic images

Significance Statement

Composites are ever more widely employed in many industrial sectors: transport (aerospace, automotive and naval), energy, medical, alimentary, etc. The important aspect is to use the most adequate type of composite for the specific application. The attention of this work was devised towards two types of composites: thermoset and thermoplastic matrix based composites. Composites  based on a thermoplastic matrix  seems to possess good energy impact performance compared to their thermosets matrix counterparts, which are more vulnerable to low energy impact. However, it is still necessary to investigate impact damages of composite materials as they behave in a quite complex way, still not completely understood.

When using an infrared camera to monitor impact events, by simply analyzing the temperature signatures arising during impact, it has been learned that it is possible to recognize type of damage, cracks in matrix, delamination and influence of manufacturing defects. Indeed, by using modern infrared thermography technologies, it is possible to follow the evolution in time and in space of thermo-elastic and -plastic phenomena arising during impact of different types of composites which may involve change of either matrix, or reinforcement.

Italian researchers from University of Naples Federico II, CRdC Tecnologie and National Research Council used infrared thermography to investigate impact damaging of composite materials involving both a thermoset matrix and a thermoplastic one, reinforced with either carbon or glass fibers. The authors then analyzed the recorded thermal images in both qualitative and quantitative ways. Results of this research were published in the peer-reviewed journal, Composite Structures.

The thermoset matrix used in this investigation is broadly epoxy resin, while thermoplastic matrix is either a pure polypropylene, or a modified one with 2% addition of a coupling agent. Woven and unidirectional carbon fibers were used as reinforcement for epoxy resin while, to allow for direct comparison, weave woven glass fabric was used as reinforcement for both epoxy resin, or pure and compatibilized polypropylene.

Impact tests were carried out with a modified Charpy pendulum allowing enough room for positioning of the infrared camera to view the side opposite to that struck by the hammer.

A wealth of information can be derived from thermal images, including determining the time interval the impactor remains in contact with the specimen surface. Moreover, information on bending and deformation of the surface under the impactor pushing force can also be obtained. The outcome of this research will assist in improved characterization of impact damaging of  composite materials.

This study demonstrates that monitoring and analyzing thermal signatures arising at impact supplies information useful for material characterization, specifically for identifying initiation and propagation of the impact damage.  

  

 New perspectives on impact damaging of thermoset- and thermoplastic-matrix composites from thermographic images. Advances in Engineering

About the author

Dr. Carosena Meola, aeronautical engineer, is currently senior research staff member at the Department of Industrial Engineering /Aerospace Division – University of Naples Federico II and is also Department Consultant for Health and Safety at Work & Risk Management and Member of the Ergonomic Society (SIE).

She is Level III in infrared thermography according to both civil engineering (RINA) and aeronautical (ITalian Aerospace Non Destructive Testing Board) standards and licensed instructor for personnel training and certification. Member of UNI, CEN and ISO Technical Committees.

Member of the Editorial Board of: ISRN Aerospace Engineering Journal, American Journal of Materials Science and Technology, Journal of Imaging. Member of the Scientific Advisory Board of QIRT Journal. Member of the Scientific Committee of AITA Conference. Member of the Technical Program Committee of AMRA and SEIA conferences. Chair of sessions within International Conferences (AITA 2011, QIRT 2012, ECNDT 2014, SPB 2015, ICCS19).

Author and co-author of about 200 papers in well recognized journals, books and proceedings and presenting author of several papers in many National and International Conferences. Co-author of a recent book entitled: ” Infrared Thermography in the Evaluation of Aerospace Composite Materials ” and Editor of two books (about NDT and Infrared thermography) and of a special issue “The World in Infrared Imaging” of the Journal of Imaging. Referee of about 50 International Journals. 

About the author

Simone Boccardi is currently  PhD student at the Department of Industrial Engineering – University of Naples Federico II with his research topic being the application of infrared thermography to the investigation of composite materials. He received his Master Degree in aerospace Engineering at University of Naples Federico II in 2013 and after worked with temporary (2014) contract at CNR Istituto Motori (Napoli).

He is co-author of a book entitled:” Infrared Thermography in the Evaluation of Aerospace Composite Materials” and of about 36 papers in well recognized journals, books and proceedings and presenting author of several papers in National (AIVELA 2014) and International Conferences (QIRT 2014, MetroAeroSpace 2015, ICCS 2015, AITA 2015, AMRA 2016, TOP 2016, DRAF 2016). 

About the author

Dr. Natalino Daniele Boffa is a PhD researcher at the University of Naples Federico II, where he achieved his M.D. with honors in Aerospace Engineering and Astronautics in 2011 and his PhD in 2016. During his career he has performed investigations on: aerospace hybrid propulsion, industrial catalysis and composite structures.

Since 2011 he is working in the SHM field investigating the Lamb wave propagation in composite structures, wave interaction with BVID defects, non-destructive evaluation of composite structures with C_scan ultrasonic inspection. He is co-author of about 35 publications in well recognized journals, books and proceedings. 

About the author

Prof. Fabrizio Ricci is Associate Professor of Aerospace Structures at the University of Naples Federico II. His research interests are in the area of Solid Mechanics and mainly focused on the behavior of composite structures as affected by static and dynamic loads, with emphasis on wave propagation, ultrasonic NDE and structural health monitoring.

He received a Grant for a research fellowship from the National Research Council in 2002, the Innovation Award from Finmeccanica in 2008 on “Design and realization of an innovative multiaxial facility for structural tests on fuselage barrels and curved panels” and the Fulbright award to the United States as Research Scholar in the academic year 2010-2011. He published more than 90 articles on international journals and conference proceedings. 

About the author

Dr. Giorgio Simeoli is currently teacher of the “Science and Technology of Materials” Course at the University of Naples Federico II, School of Medicine and Surgery. He received his Masters Degree in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Naples Federico II, in 2009 and his Ph.D. in “Materials and Structures Engineering” in 2013 at the same University. He has been awarded a post-doctoral fellowship at the Department of Chemical, Materials and Production Engineering of the University of Naples Federico II (from March 2013 to March 2014). Later he worked as R&D manager at Eceplast srl and Lirsa srl. for the development of advanced polymeric films for a wide variety of industrial applications.

His research activity was first in the area of physical, chemical and mechanical properties of polymers and thermoplastic composite materials and later on damage mechanisms and residual strengths of composite structures subjected to low velocity impact events. He is co-author of over twenty-five papers in well recognized journals, books and proceedings. 

About the author

Dr. Pietro Russo, graduated with laude in Chemical Engineering at the University of Salerno on 10/06/1991, carried out his first experimental work at the Department of Chemical and Food Engineering of the University of Salerno until March 1995. Later his work was held at the Institute for Research and Technology of Plastic Materials of the National Research Council (CNR), now named Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials. Since January 2001 he is researcher of the CNR. From October 2006 to December 2010 Dr. Russo has been officially assigned at the Department of Materials Engineering and Production of the University of Naples Federico II.

His main research interests are processing technologies including recycling of polymer based formulations and nanocomposites, rheology of nanostructured systems, polymer materials with improved thermal, mechanical, dielectric and flame retardant properties, low-velocity impact behavior of laminated structures. Dr. Russo is co-author of 100 publications in refereed international journals, 2 book chapters and more than 170 communications mainly submitted to international conferences. 

About the author

Prof. Giovanni Maria Carlomagno is Emeritus Professor of the University of Naples Federico II. He was member of the Board of Trustees, Dean of the Mechanical Engineering and Aerospace Engineering Schools of University of Naples. Member and Chairman of von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics Technical Advisory Committee. Member of the Executive Committee of the International Council of Aeronautical Sciences. Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

Member of the Editorial Board of more than 20 International Scientific Journals. Author of some 400 scientific papers and of more than 10 industrial patents. Author, Editor or Co-editor of some 30 books. Recipient of several scientific Awards. Honorary Fellow of the International Council of Aeronautical Sciences. Honorary Member of the QIRT (Quantitative InfraRed Thermography) Council. 

Journal Reference

Meola1, S. Boccardi1,  N.D. Boffa1, F. Ricci1, G. Simeoli2, P. Russo3, G.M. Carlomagno1. New perspectives on impact damaging of thermoset- and thermoplastic-matrix composites from thermographic images, Composite Structures 152 (2016) 746-754.

Show Affiliations
  1. Department of Industrial Engineering – Aerospace Division, University of Naples Federico II, Via Claudio, 21, 80125 Napoli, Italy.
  2. CRdC Tecnologie s.c.r.l., Naples, Italy.
  3. Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials, National Council of Research, Pozzuoli (Na), Italy.

 

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