Sound Radiation Analysis of Full Ceramic Ball Bearings with Temperature-Related Fit Clearance

Significance 

Rolling bearings are essential components in various automated devices, playing a pivotal role in ensuring the smooth operation of mechanical systems. In applications that involve extreme conditions, such as spacecraft, high-speed machine tools, and drones, traditional steel bearings may not be suitable due to limitations related to temperature, speed, and lubrication. In such scenarios, full ceramic ball bearings (FCBB) have gained prominence due to their high stiffness and exceptional thermal shock resistance. However, FCBB systems often feature ceramic outer rings mounted in steel pedestals, leading to a significant difference in thermal expansion coefficients between the two materials. This discrepancy results in varying fit clearances over a wide temperature range, affecting the interaction between the outer ring and the pedestal, and consequently, the sound radiation from the bearing system. Recent research has highlighted the potential of sound radiation characteristics as indicators of the operational performance of FCBB systems, particularly when dealing with ceramic materials known for their sound radiation efficiency. The new study published in the Journal of Sound and Vibration led by Professor Xiaotian Bai and Professor Huaitao Shi from Shenyang Jianzhu University, focused on developing a comprehensive sound radiation model for FCBB systems that accounts for temperature-related fit clearances. By establishing new geometric and force boundary conditions and conducting experimental investigations, the study aims to shed light on the impact of temperature, rotational speed, and radial load on sound radiation characteristics, thereby providing valuable insights into the operational status of FCBB systems.

The research approach adopted by the authors integrates model-based calculations with signal acquisition and conditional recognition to monitor the conditions of FCBB systems. They examined the effects of various working condition parameters, such as temperature, rotational speed, and radial load, on sound radiation. Sound pressure levels serve as indicators for assessing changes in mating gap under different loads and temperatures. The accuracy of the model is established through a comparison of monitoring results with theoretical predictions.

The primary factor influencing the acoustic radiation of all-ceramic ball bearing systems is identified as mating clearance. The researchers utilized sound pressure levels as indicators to evaluate the intensity of sound radiation. The influence of working conditions on sound radiation can be effectively analyzed by comparing changes in various influencing factors. They successfully present a sound radiation model for FCBB systems, taking into account temperature-related fit clearance. This model is used to investigate the impact of all-ceramic ball bearings and steel housings on acoustic radiation as mating clearance changes. Notable observations from the study include the significant effect of mating gap on acoustic radiation and the variation of sound radiation indicators, such as peak angle and directivity, with changing working conditions. The study’s approach is validated through theoretical analysis, with monitoring results closely aligning with theoretical predictions.

The study’s findings underscore the significance of understanding how fit clearance variations in wide temperature ranges impact the interactions between FCBB components, leading to changes in sound radiation characteristics. Notably, the main frequency components in sound radiation are attributed to the rotating frequency and its first four-order harmonic frequencies, with the rotating frequency being the dominant contributor. The fit clearance-induced separation of the outer ring from the pedestal introduces a new source of interaction, encompassing both friction and impact sound. The friction-impact ratio varies with temperature, and the interactions between bearing components are influenced by excitation frequencies and loads. Consequently, sound pressure levels increase monotonously with temperature but exhibit inflection points concerning rotation speed and radial loads. The location of peak angle, a key parameter in sound radiation, is influenced by resultant forces and friction-impact interactions. The authors highlighted that the polarization of sound radiation, as indicated by parameters like Gs and Ψ, is significantly influenced by fit clearance and varies with temperature. This polarization performance reflects uneven interaction conditions between FCBB components, indicating that increased fit clearance not only amplifies sound radiation but also intensifies and imbalances component interactions. The researchers acknowledged that choosing a tighter initial fit clearance can mitigate these effects.

In conclusion, Professor Xiaotian Bai and Professor Huaitao Shi from Shenyang Jianzhu University have presented a sound radiation model for FCBB systems, accounting for temperature-related fit clearance variations. Their research has illuminated the impact of working condition parameters, such as temperature, rotation speed, and radial load, on sound radiation characteristics. Key findings emphasize the crucial role of fit clearance in affecting sound radiation, with rotating frequency dominating the sound spectrum.

Sound Radiation Analysis of Full Ceramic Ball Bearings with Temperature-Related Fit Clearance - Advances in Engineering Sound Radiation Analysis of Full Ceramic Ball Bearings with Temperature-Related Fit Clearance - Advances in Engineering Sound Radiation Analysis of Full Ceramic Ball Bearings with Temperature-Related Fit Clearance - Advances in Engineering

About the author

Xiaotian Bai was born in Fushun, Liaoning, China in 1989. He received the B.S. degree in School of Mechanical Engineering from Dalian University of Technology in 2011, and got the PhD degree in Shenyang University of Technology in 2016.

Prof. Bai has been an associate professor in faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University since 2019. He carried out his postdoctoral work in Shenyang Jianzhu University from 2016 to 2018, and worked as a visiting scholar in Transilvania University of Brasov for 3 months to help develop the international joint laboratory.

Prof. Bai was awarded the Youth Science and Technology award of Liaoning Province in 2023, and was also the recipient of the Science and Technology Progress Award given by the China Society of Mechanical Engineering. Prof. Bai was the deputy secretary-general and managing director of Liaoning Society of Vibration Engineering, and has been the reviewer for Journal of Sound and Vibration and Mechanical Systems Signal Processing since 2019.

Prof. Bai’s current research interest includes vibration and sound radiation of rotary systems. So far he has been the author of over 30 papers and 10 patents. His findings were widely cited by scholars with relative topics. He also took part in the diagnosis and maintenance of rotary machines, and the effects proved to be satisfactory.

About the author

Huaitao Shi was born in Fuyang, Anhui Province, China in 1982. He received the B.S. degree in control engineering from Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning in 2001, and M.S. and PhD degrees in control engineering from Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning in 2005 and 2012.

Prof.Shi has been a professor in faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University since 2013. From 2014 to 2022, he served as the Vice Dean of the School of Mechanical Engineering at Shenyang Jianzhu University, and has been the Executive Vice Dean since 2023. He was also the vice chairman of the Liaoning Society of Vibration Engineering.

Professor Shi has been awarded honors such as the National “Ten Thousand Talents Plan” Youth Top Talents of the Central Organization Department, the “Xingliao Talent” Youth Top Talents of Liaoning Province, and the “Hundred Thousand Talents Project” Hundred Talents Level of Liaoning Province. He was the recipient of the Liaoning Science and Technology Award and the Liaoning Natural Science Achievement Award, and was one of the participants of the prize for scientific and technological progress given by the Ministry of Education. He is the author of over 90 articles, and 19 patents. His current research interests include Mechanical system fault diagnosis and intelligent operation and maintenance, industrial robot intelligent control and operation and maintenance. His research findings has been applied in several bearing enterprises, and great economic and social benefits were created thereby.

About the author

Ke Zhang was born in Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China, in 1969. He got his B.S. degree in Control Engineering from Shenyang Jianzhu University, Liaoning, in 1992. Since 1993, he has been dedicated to teaching and conducting research in mechanical engineering. In 2007, he obtained his Ph.D. degree in Mechanical Manufacturing from Northeastern University.

Since 2006, Professor Zhang has held various leadership roles, including Deputy Secretary and Dean of the Party Committee of the School of Transportation and Mechanical Engineering at Shenyang Jianzhu University, as well as a Standing Committee Member and Vice President of the Party Committee of Shenyang Jianzhu University. Currently, he serves as the Deputy Secretary of the Party Committee and President of Shenyang University of Technology.

Prof. Zhang is a prominent national talent and recipient of a special allowance from the State Council. He is recognized as an outstanding talent of the Ministry of Education in the new century, leading the “National University Huang Danian-style Teacher Team” of the Ministry of Education. Additionally, he holds the position of a climbing scholar in Liaoning Province and is an esteemed professor in the same region. Prof. Zhang serves as the Deputy Director of the National “High-grade Stone CNC Machining Equipment and Technology” (Local) Joint Engineering Laboratory, Deputy Director of the International Cooperation Joint Laboratory for “Modern Architectural Engineering Equipment and Technology” of the Ministry of Education, and Director of the Liaoning Key Laboratory.

Prof. Zhang has received numerous accolades in the fields of science, technology, and education. His awards and honors include the second prize of the National Science and Technology Progress Award, the second prize of the National Technology Invention Award, the Excellence Award of the China Patent Award, the second prize of the Liaoning Science and Technology Progress Award, the third prize of the Huaxia Science and Technology Award, the first prize of the Liaoning Science and Technology Progress Award, the first prize of the Liaoning Patent Award, and the first prize of the Liaoning Teaching Achievement Award. These awards reflect his significant contributions to these areas.

About the author

Xiaochen Zhang was born in 1985 in Anshan, Liaoning Province, China, and received his Ph. D. degree from the School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University in 2016.

Prof. Zhang has been an associate professor of the Shenyang Jianzhu University Mechanical Engineering since 2019. In 2022, he was appointed vice-president of the Shenyang Jianzhu University Mechanical Engineering and was responsible for the institute’s scientific and technological research work. As a moderator, he has twice won the Academic Achievement Award of Natural Science in Liaoning province.

Currently, his main research direction is intelligent monitoring and life management of machinery and equipment operation and maintenance based on big data technology and artificial intelligence technology. So far, he has presided over more than 10 projects, including the National Natural Science Foundation of China, published more than 30 scientific papers, and granted more than 10 patents.

About the author

Zinan Wang was born in Shenyang, Liaoning, China in 1989,07. He received the B.S. degree from Dalian Jiaotong University in 2012, and got the PhD degree in Shenyang Jianzhu University in 2021.

Prof. Wang has been an Associate Professor in Shenyang Jianzhu University since 2022. He is a Master’s supervisor. He is also a Member of Chinese Society of Vibration Engineering and IEEE Member. He works in “Changjiang Scholars” innovation team.

Prof. Wang hosted the National Natural Science Foundation youth project and the International Cooperation Department of the Ministry of Science and Technology: The fourth Intergovernmental Meeting between China and Ukraine exchanged international cooperation project in 2022. He participated more than 10 national, provincial and ministerial level projects.

Prof. Wang ’s current research interest includes the rotor system intelligent operation, digital twin system, design, manufacturing technology and cooperative optimization control. He had a good foundation in the design and application technology of rotor system. He had transformed and applied the technology of vibration suppression and temperature rise of rotor system in Shenyang Machine Tool Co., LTD. and Luoyang Hangte Electromechanical Technology Co., LTD. So far, he authorized more than 10 invention patents for technical achievements and published more than 20 SCI papers.

About the author

Yuhou Wu was born in Anshan, Liaoning Province, China, in 1955. He got the B.S. degree in Mechanical Engineering from Shenyang Institute of Construction Engineering, Liaoning, in 1982. Later, he completed his Ph.D. in Control Engineering at Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, in 1994.

Prof. Wu has held a professorship at the School of Mechanical Engineering, Shenyang Construction University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China, since 1994. He is a recipient of the special allowance issued by the State Council and was among the first group of leading talents in Liaoning Province. Additionally, he is recognized as an international member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and is considered an outstanding expert in Liaoning Province.

Prof. Wu has been the recipient of several prestigious awards, including the Second Prize of National Scientific and Technological Progress and the Second Prize of National Technological Invention. He is also a recipient of the National Teaching Achievement Award. His academic contributions include the publication of over 300 papers and more than 20 patent applications. Currently, his research interests revolve around precision machining and ceramic parts manufacturing. His research findings in key technologies related to high-speed spindle systems for CNC machine tools and CNC machining processes for shaped stone have been successfully implemented in various enterprises, leading to substantial economic and social benefits.

Reference

Xiaotian Bai, Huaitao Shi, Ke Zhang, Xiaochen Zhang, Yuhou Wu, Effect of the fit clearance between ceramic outer ring and steel pedestal on the sound radiation of full ceramic ball bearing system, Journal of Sound and Vibration, Volume 529, 2022, 116967,

Go to Journal of Sound and Vibration

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