Tantalum- and Silver-Doped Titanium Dioxide Nano sheets Film: Influence on Interfacial Bonding Structure and Hardness of the Surface System

Significance Statement

Titanium dioxide has received much research attention in many areas of science and technology owing to its attractive applications in dielectrics, photo catalysts, bio applications, water splitting, and energy applications. For this reason, nanostructured titanium dioxide with varying morphologies such as 0-2 dimensional structures has been produced following various procedures. Surface functionalization of titanium oxide has a positive efficacy in various biomedical applications including implants, drug delivery, and bone scaffolds.

However, there has been a challenge of clearly understanding the bonding strength at the interfaces and resistance of the thin film substrate systems. This arise from the high atomic coordination at the face between the substrate and the films. Tantalum has high bioactivity and corrosion resistance as compared to other biocompatible elements. However, the high cost of tantalum and bulk density, limits its clinical application potential.

A microlayer of tantalum embedded on the surface of titanium can enhance corrosion and bioactivity. Adding antibacterial ions of silver or gold can reduce critical microbial infection. For this reason, doping antibacterial agent ions of silver or gold can enhance the antibacterial capability of tantalum-coated titanium alloy. Jalal Azadmanjiri and colleagues presented a simple electrostatic polarization method in an electronic model that helped them investigate the interfacial bonding between tantalum or tantalum silver thin films and titanium alloy substrates. Their work is published in journal, industrial and Engineering chemistry research.

The authors used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to assess the interfaces of Tantalum-silver/titanium alloys and tantalum/titanium alloy systems. Their main problem was to identify the electronic structure of the conjugated film on the metal surface. Therefore, they adopted an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to assess (i) tantalum coated titanium alloy and (ii) tantalum-silver coated titanium alloy systems with an aim of capturing the satellite peak feature of the titanium 2p photoelectron line. The peaks were greatly influenced by valence electrons as well as electron density distribution. Therefore, the authors used peak intensity as a direct measure of the valence electron density.

The authors obtained results that were consistent with the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data for heterostructure specimens. They recorded an interfacial polarization from the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra which indicated an enhanced bonding between titanium atoms at the interface. When they increased the bonding coordination and likely interstitial and diffusions of silver with atomic radii less than tantalum and titanium, created denser and stiffer coatings. They realized that these coatings limited the conventional movements of interfacial dislocations, therefore, increasing the hardness of the obtained surface system.

This study investigated the interfacial bonding structures of tantalum-silver and tantalum films on titanium surfaces using electronic models, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and nanoindentation. They realized that satellite peak intensity had a direct relationship with bonding strength as well as the hardness of the surface. The bonding strength of the film was further enhanced by the formation of semiconductor phases with large band gaps at the tantalum-silver and titanium alloys.

Tantalum- and Silver-Doped Titanium Dioxide Nano sheets Film Influence on Interfacial Bonding Structure and Hardness of the Surface System - Advances in Engineering

About the author

Ajay Kapoor obtained his BTech and MTech at IIT, BHU, Varanasi (1980 and 1983 respectively), and his PhD at Cambridge University, UK (1987). Subsequently, he lectured at IIT BHU before moving back to Cambridge in 1990. He spent time at Leicester University (1994 – 1995), Sheffield University (1995 – 2004), Newcastle University (2004 – 2007) and moved to Swinburne University of Technology, Australia in 2007.

Currently he is Pro Vice-Chancellor (International Research Engagement) in Swinburne. His research interests include mechanics of materials, wear and rolling contact fatigue.

About the author

Dr A.S.M Ang was awarded his PhD in December 2013 and he is currently employed at Swinburne in the capacity of postdoctoral research fellow. Prior to coming to Australia to commence his post graduate training, Dr Ang worked for a major engineering contractor in Singapore. These collective experiences have enriched his expertise in manufacturing and technical processing of materials; with primary expertise in the design, manufacture and mechanical characterisation of thermal spray coatings for industrial applications.

His research interests have been focused on process optimisation of coating processes for commercial applications, as well as the mechanical characterisation and corrosion performance of unique coating microstructures.

About the author

Professor Berndt has been involved in teaching and research within the materials engineering and mechanical engineering disciplines for the past 37-years. He has taken on leadership roles within professional societies for the past 20-years, which includes the Presidency of ASM International and the Australian Ceramic Society.

He has impacted many thousands of undergraduates through his teaching, as well as some 60 graduate students and post docs. Berndt is especially proud of his students and post docs who have achieved professional prominence and earned good lives.

About the author

De Ming Zhu received his PhD (full scholarships) in Materials Science and Engineering from Monash University, Australia (2007) followed by electron microscopist at the University of Newcastle (2007-2010), senior technical officer at UNSW (2010-2012) then at Swinburne University of Technology (2012-now).

His research interests focus on the relationships of processing-microstructure-properties of advanced materials which include nanostructured materials, functional materials, biomaterials, thin solid films and coatings with particular emphasis on the application and development of advanced characterization techniques, including SEM, TEM, EDS, XRD, AFM, XPS, Raman and confocal microscopes.

About the author

Jalal Azadmanjiri received his PhD (full scholarships) in Materials Science and Engineering from Monash University, Australia (2012) followed by postdoctoral research fellow at Swinburne University of Technology.

His current research interests include nanomaterials and nanotechnology, especially focusing on design, preparation and characterization of nanomaterials in zero-, one- and two-dimensional structures. He is also interested in the development and improvement of hybrid materials with thin film and layered structures for energy storage devices and the study of their interfaces.

About the author

James Wang obtained his PhD from the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, RMIT University in 2003, and since then he has been working as a research fellow and senior lecturer in the Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia.

His research fields include the preparation, characterization and application of various thin solid films and coatings, magnetic materials, and biomaterials.

About the author

Prof. Vijay K Srivastava did his bachelar degree in Mechanical Engineering in 1977, Master degree in Machine Design in 1979 and Ph.D. in 1987 from Indian Institute of Technology (BHU) Varanasi. Vijay Srivastava is working as a full Professor in Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), Varanasi, India, since last 30 years.

He has published more than 160 papers in peer reviewed International Journals. He has supervised more than 40 master theses and 5 Ph. D. Cordinated more than five internation projects with Germany, Japan, Australia and US. He is FOUNDER PRESIDENT OF “ICRACM SERIES CONFERENCE.”

Prof. Srivastava, has also honored Adjunct Professorship in Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology at Swinburne University of Technology (SUT), Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia for the period from 1st August 2016 to 30th August 2019. As an Adjunct Professor, Dr. Srivastava will determine the range of research activities with the faculty of Swinburne University.


Jalal Azadmanjiri1, James Wang1, Christopher C. Berndt1,2, Ajay Kapoor1, De Ming Zhu1, Andrew S. M. Ang1, and Vijay K. Srivastava3. Tantalum- and Silver-Doped Titanium Dioxide Nano sheets Film: Influence on Interfacial Bonding Structure and Hardness of the Surface System. Industrial and Engineering chemistry research, volume 56 (2017), pages 434−439.

Show Affiliations
  1. School of Engineering, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122, Australia
  2. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, United States
  3. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, BHU, Varanasi-221005, India


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