Unearthing the Heat of Precision: Exploring the Dynamic World of Full Ceramic Bearings in Extreme Temperatures

Significance 

As the development of high-speed engines and aerospace technologies continues to advance, the demand for high-performance rolling bearings has reached unprecedented levels. This surge in demand can be attributed to the critical role that bearings play in ensuring the smooth operation of various high-speed systems. In particular, the aerospace industry relies heavily on bearings that can withstand extreme conditions while maintaining precision and reliability. One remarkable solution that has emerged to meet these demanding requirements is the use of full ceramic bearings. These bearings are engineered using advanced ceramic materials, such as silicon nitride and zirconia, for their balls and rings. The advantages of full ceramic bearings are numerous and include their exceptional hardness, high thermal shock resistance, and the ability to maintain precise performance even in the presence of high temperatures. This makes them a preferred choice for applications in micro-aircraft engines and gas turbines, where complex configurations and extreme temperatures are commonplace. However, the successful integration of full ceramic bearings into high-speed systems is not without its challenges. One of the primary issues stems from the inherent difference in thermal expansion between the ceramic outer ring and the steel inner ring. To address this discrepancy, full ceramic bearings are often installed within steel bearings. While this arrangement allows for the benefits of ceramic materials, it introduces a critical concern – the widening of the clearance between the rings at elevated temperatures.

This increase in clearance, driven by the thermal expansion disparity between ceramic and steel components, can lead to relative motion between the rings and the bearing seat. This relative motion has undesirable consequences, including impacts and additional wear on the bearing components. These adverse effects are detrimental to the precision and longevity of the bearing, which is contrary to the goals of maintaining operating accuracy in high-performance systems. Understanding the dynamic behavior of full ceramic bearings in the context of this temperature-induced clearance variation is a paramount concern. The vibration of the ball bearing-rotor system, which is central to the performance of these bearings, arises primarily from the interactions among the bearing components. This vibration is intricately linked to the impact and friction occurring between the balls and the raceways within the bearing. Numerous studies conducted in recent decades have illuminated the significance of operating temperature in bearing performance. The research has underscored the complex relationship between the temperature, the interaction of bearing components, and the resulting vibration. It is evident that temperature plays a pivotal role in determining bearing behavior, making it imperative to investigate the interactions among bearing elements across a wide temperature range. In contemporary research methods, the influence of operating temperature on ball-bearing vibration has predominantly been explored through modifications in the contact force between the balls and the raceways. However, relatively little attention has been given to the interaction between the balls and the bearing seat. This oversight is significant, especially in scenarios where full ceramic bearings are installed within steel bearings. In these cases, the clearance between the rings undergoes substantial variations as temperatures fluctuate. These changes in clearance introduce additional complexity into the system dynamics, leading to increased vibration caused by local impacts and oscillations. Furthermore, the trajectory of the outer ring within the bearing seat becomes notably intricate under these conditions.

In a new study published in the Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing Journal led by Dr. Huaitao Shi, Prof. Yangyang Li, Prof. Xiaotian Bai, Prof. Zinan Wang, Prof. Defang Zou, Prof. Zhigang Bao, and Prof. Zhong Wang from Shenyang Jianzhu University developed a dynamic model that takes into account temperature-related fit clearance and incorporates a flexible outer ring. This model enabled them to analyze the orbital and spinning motions of the outer ring at different temperatures. Several indicators were introduced to evaluate the relative motion between the outer ring and the pedestal, providing insights into dynamic behaviors based on contact theory. The dynamic model established in their study offers a comprehensive framework for examining the behavior of full ceramic bearings in wide temperature ranges. It considers the changing fit clearance due to temperature variations and elucidates the orbital and spinning motions of the outer ring.

The authors’ findings reveal that the impact of temperature on the dynamic characteristics of the bearing is achieved through changes in the clearance between the outer ring and the bearing seat, influenced by parameters such as temperature, speed, and load. Theoretical analysis of the results aligns closely with experimental findings, confirming the validity of the model. These research outcomes provide a robust theoretical foundation for the design and optimization of ceramic bearing systems in high-performance applications, particularly those characterized by wide temperature variations. In summary, the study represents a significant advancement in our understanding of full ceramic bearings’ dynamic behavior across a wide temperature range. It not only highlights the importance of temperature in bearing performance but also addresses the challenges posed by temperature-induced clearance variations when ceramic bearings are integrated into steel bearings. This research paves the way for the development of more reliable and precise bearing systems in high-speed engines and aerospace technologies, ultimately pushing the boundaries of what is achievable in these cutting-edge fields.

Unearthing the Heat of Precision: Exploring the Dynamic World of Full Ceramic Bearings in Extreme Temperatures Unearthing the Heat of Precision: Exploring the Dynamic World of Full Ceramic Bearings in Extreme Temperatures Unearthing the Heat of Precision: Exploring the Dynamic World of Full Ceramic Bearings in Extreme Temperatures

About the author

Huaitao Shi was born in Fuyang, Anhui Province, China in 1982. He received the B.S. degree in control engineering from Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning in 2001, and M.S. and PhD degrees in control engineering from Northeastern University, Shenyang, Liaoning in 2005 and 2012.

Prof.Shi has been a professor in faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University since 2013. From 2014 to 2022, he served as the Vice Dean of the School of Mechanical Engineering at Shenyang Jianzhu University, and has been the Executive Vice Dean since 2023. He was also the vice chairman of the Liaoning Society of Vibration Engineering.

Professor Shi has been awarded honors such as the National “Ten Thousand Talents Plan” Youth Top Talents of the Central Organization Department, the “Xingliao Talent” Youth Top Talents of Liaoning Province, and the “Hundred Thousand Talents Project” Hundred Talents Level of Liaoning Province. He was the recipient of the Liaoning Science and Technology Award and the Liaoning Natural Science Achievement Award, and was one of the participants of the prize for scientific and technological progress given by the Ministry of Education. He is the author of over 90 articles, and 19 patents. His current research interests include Mechanical system fault diagnosis and intelligent operation and maintenance, industrial robot intelligent control and operation and maintenance. His research findings has been applied in several bearing enterprises, and great economic and social benefits were created thereby.

About the author

Xiaotian Bai was born in Fushun, Liaoning, China in 1989. He received the B.S. degree in School of Mechanical Engineering from Dalian University of Technology in 2011, and got the PhD degree in Shenyang University of Technology in 2016.

Prof. Bai has been an associate professor in faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University since 2019. He carried out his postdoctoral work in Shenyang Jianzhu University from 2016 to 2018, and worked as a visiting scholar in Transilvania University of Brasov for 3 months to help develop the international joint laboratory.

Prof. Bai was awarded the Youth Science and Technology award of Liaoning Province in 2023, and was also the recipient of the Science and Technology Progress Award given by the China Society of Mechanical Engineering. Prof. Bai was the deputy secretary-general and managing director of Liaoning Society of Vibration Engineering, and has been the reviewer for Journal of Sound and Vibration and Mechanical Systems Signal Processing since 2019.

Prof.Bai’s current research interest includes vibration and sound radiation of rotary systems. So far he has been the author of over 30 papers and 10 patents. His findings were widely cited by scholars with relative topics. He also took part in the diagnosis and maintenance of rotary machines, and the effects proved to be satisfactory.

About the author

Defang Zou was born in Suihua, Heilongjiang, China in 1978. She received the B.S. degree in School of Mechanical Engineering from Northeastern University in 2000, and got the Master degree in Northeastern University in 2006. Prof. Zou has been a full senior experimentalist in faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Shenyang Jianzhu University since 2020. She is currently the Director of the Experimental Center at Shenyang Jianzhu University’s School of Mechanical Engineering. Additionally, she serves as the Director of the Institute of Modern Building Industrialization Equipment Technology and the Deputy Head of the Department of Engineering Machinery.

Professor Zou is a member of the Concrete Machinery Sub-Technical Committee (SAC/TC328/SCI) under the National Technical Committee on Standardization of Construction Machinery and Equipment (Committee Code: T-328-01-03-0013).

Prof. Zou has undertaken one project from the Science and Technology Department of Liaoning Province, one project from the Education Department of Liaoning Province, and one project from the Basic Research Fund of Shenyang Jianzhu University. Professor Zou has also participated as a key member in one of the national “13th Five-Year Plan” key research and development projects and more than ten projects at the provincial and ministerial levels.

Prof. Zou has published over 20 research papers, authored 2 textbooks, holds 4 software copyrights, and received 2 provincial-level teaching and research awards, including the first prize for teaching achievements in higher education in Liaoning Province. Additionally, she has supervised students in various national and provincial competitions, resulting in 7 awards.

About the author

Zhigang Bao was born in Tongliao, Inner Mongolia, China in 1988. He received the B.S. degree in the School of Mechanical Engineering from Inner Mongolia Minzu University in 2012, and M.S degree in mechanical engineering from Shenyang Jianzhu University in 2015. He pursued doctoral studies in Mechanical Engineering at Shenyang Jianzhu University in 2017.

Prof. Bao is an associate professor in the School of Mechanical Engineering at Shenyang Jianzhu University. He is a member of the Society of Vibration Engineering and has previously served as a reviewer for journals such as “Industrial Lubrication and Tribology” and “Sensors.”

Prof. Bao’s current research focuses on the analysis of the vibration and acoustic characteristics of bearings and electric spindle, with particular emphasis on in-depth research in the fields of equipment manufacturing and new materials (ceramic materials). To date, he has published over 20 research papers, obtained 7 granted invention patents, contributed to the compilation of 3 standards, authored or co-authored 4 monographs, participated in the formulation of 3 standards, led projects at the provincial and ministerial levels, and contributed to over 20 national and provincial projects. Additionally, he has delivered more than 10 keynote speeches. His research achievements have been widely recognized within the industry, reflecting a profound understanding of the current state and future development directions in the field.

About the author

Zhong Wang was born in Liaozhong, Liaoning Province in 1983. He graduated from Shenyang University of Technology in 2015 and got the doctoral degree.

Prof.Wang is now the vice dean in School of Mechanical Engineering, Liaoning Institute of Science and Technology. He was chosen as the standing director and the vice-secretary general of the Liaoning Society of Vibration Engineering, and received high praise in the area.

Prof.Wang’s research interests includes vibration and noise control and fault diagnosis. He was awarded the outstanding science and technology model of Liaoning Province, and got the provincial science and technology progress award twice. He hosted and participated in 12 provincial projects, and published over 20 papers. He has led nearly 100 projects with enterprises, and brought over 100 million economic benefits.

About the author

Zinan Wang was born in Shenyang, Liaoning, China in 1989,07. He received the B.S. degree from Dalian Jiaotong University in 2012, and got the PhD degree in Shenyang Jianzhu University in 2021.

Prof. Wang has been an Associate Professor in Shenyang Jianzhu University since 2022. He is a Master’s supervisor. He is also a Member of Chinese Society of Vibration Engineering and IEEE Member. He works in “Changjiang Scholars” innovation team.

Prof. Wang hosted the National Natural Science Foundation youth project and the International Cooperation Department of the Ministry of Science and Technology: The fourth Intergovernmental Meeting between China and Ukraine exchanged international cooperation project in 2022. He participated more than 10 national, provincial and ministerial level projects.

Prof. Wang ’s current research interest includes the rotor system intelligent operation, digital twin system, design, manufacturing technology and cooperative optimization control. He had a good foundation in the design and application technology of rotor system. He had transformed and applied the technology of vibration suppression and temperature rise of rotor system in Shenyang Machine Tool Co., LTD. and Luoyang Hangte Electromechanical Technology Co., LTD. So far, he authorized more than 10 invention patents for technical achievements and published more than 20 SCI papers.

References

Huaitao Shi, Yangyang Li, Xiaotian Bai, Zinan Wang, Defang Zou, Zhigang Bao, Zhong Wang, Investigation of the orbit-spinning behaviors of the outer ring in a full ceramic ball bearing-steel pedestal system in wide temperature ranges, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Volume 149, 2021, 107317,

Go to Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing

Check Also

Advancing Metal Additive Manufacturing: Engineering Microstructures for Tailored Properties - Advances in Engineering

Advancing Metal Additive Manufacturing: Engineering Microstructures for Tailored Properties