Broadband terahertz conductivity and optical transmission of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanomaterials.

Opt Express. 2013 Jul 15;21(14):16670-82. Yang CS, Chang CM, Chen PH, Yu P, Pan CL. Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan.

 

Abstract   Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanorods (NRs) and nanowhiskers (NWhs) were fabricated by an electron-beam glancing-angle deposition (GLAD) system. These nanomaterials are of interests as transparent conducting electrodes in various devices. Two terahertz (THz) time-domain spectrometers (TDS) with combined spectral coverage from 0.15 to 9.00 THz were used. These allow accurate determination of the optical and electrical properties of such ITO nanomaterials in the frequency range from 0.20 to 4.00 THz. Together with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) measurements, we found that the THz and far-infrared transmittance of these nanomaterials can be as high as 70% up to 15 THz, as opposed to about 9% for sputtered ITO thin films. The complex conductivities of ITO NRs, NWhs as well films are well fitted by the Drude-Smith model. Taking into account that the volume filling factors of both type of nanomaterials are nearly same, mobilities, and DC conductivities of ITO NWhs are higher than those of NRs due to less severe carrier localization effects in the former. On the other hand, mobilities of sputtered ITO thin films are poorer than ITO nanomaterials because of larger concentration of dopant ions in films, which causes stronger carrier scattering. We note further that consideration of the extreme values of Re{σ} and Im{σ} as well the inflection points, which are functions of the carrier scattering time (τ) and the expectation value of cosine of the scattering angle ({Gamma}), provide additional criteria for accessing the accuracy of the extraction of electrical parameters of non-Drude-like materials using THz-TDS. Our studies so far indicate ITO NWhs with heights of ~1000 nm show outstanding transmittance and good electrical characteristics for applications such as transparent conducting electrodes of THz Devices.   Go To PubMed   Additional information Transparent and conducting Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) thin films are now widely used in optoelectronic devices for the visible and near-IR. Because of its omidirectional and wideband anti-reflection characteristics, ITO nanomaterials such as nanorods (NRs) and nanowhiskers (NWhs) have attracted a lot of attention lately. Time-domain terahertz spectroscopy (THz-TDS) provides a non-contact method for characterizing the electrical and dielectric properties of technologically important materials Accurate determination of the optical and electrical properties of such ITO nanomaterials in the frequency range from 0.20 to 4.00 THz were conducted . Together with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) measurements, we found that the THz and far-infrared transmittance of these nanomaterials can be as high as 70% up to 15 THz, as opposed to about 9% for sputtered ITO thin films. The complex conductivities of ITO NRs, NWhs as well films are well fitted by the Drude-Smith model. Taking into account that the volume filling factors of both type of nanomaterials are nearly same, mobilities, and DC conductivities of ITO NWhs are higher than those of NRs due to less severe carrier localization effects in the former. On the other hand, mobilities of sputtered ITO thin films are poorer than ITO nanomaterials because of larger concentration of dopant ions in films, which causes stronger carrier scattering. It is also shown that the extreme values of Re{σ} and Im{σ} as well the inflection points, which are functions of the carrier scattering time (τ) and the expectation value of cosine of the scattering angle ({Gamma}), provide additional criteria for accessing the accuracy of the extraction of electrical parameters of non-Drude-like materials using THz-TDS. Our studies so far indicate ITO NWhs with heights of ~1000 nm show outstanding transmittance and good electrical characteristics for applications such as transparent conducting electrodes of THz Devices.   Broadband terahertz conductivity and optical transmission of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanomaterials

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