Advances in Applied Ceramics, 2013, vol.111, no.5&6; pp. 351 – 359. (UK)
3G HTS Corporation, NY, USA, www.3GHTS.com
The paper reports the major results of research and development of thermo-chemically nanofabricated high temperature superconducting (HTS) ceramic leads and multi-filament HTS-YBCO electric wire. Advanced scientific features of the created ceramic engineering processing based on ceramic-polymer (silicone) nanotechnology, including ceramic coating on continuous metal filaments, are discussed. Thermo-chemical nanofabrication of honeycomb-like nano-architecture resulted in inter-grain superconductivity of fully-dense sintered YBCO macro-ceramics, which is close to inner-grain superconductivity of initial YBCO particles. The developed multi-filament HTS-YBCO wire is cost-effective, reliable, flexible, and as workable as copper wire, but conducts about 100 times more electricity with insignificant heat losses.
Additional In formation
In opposite with 25-year-long mechanical engineering technological paradigm of 1G and 2G HTS wire, we invented a thermo-chemical Ceramic Engineering method allowing macro-scale realization of nano-scale inner- and inter-grain “superconducting” phenomena and development of superconducting macro-ceramics and 3G HTS electric wire. We invented and US patented:
1) material formulation using YBCO ceramic powder and silicone polymer and silver powder additives;
2) the sintered ceramic composite macro-material with superconductive nano-architecture;
3) the self-controlled thermo-chemical ceramic-polymer nanotechnology;
4) a method of adhesion coating by HTS composite of NiCr alloy filament substrate,
5) a method of the magnetic grain orientation of the YBCO composite material,
6) new and advanced ceramic product – inexpensive and reliable 3G HTS electric wire round filament; and
7) inexpensive reel-to-reel conveyor technology for continues manufacturing 3G HTS electric round wire.
3G HTS electric wire comprises of a metal filament, which is coated by sintered HTS ceramics with thermo-chemically self-assembled (no template) 3-D honeycomb-like nano-architecture. This nano-architecture ultimately causes superconductivity of the formed and sintered (integer) macro-ceramics, which is close to superconductivity of micro and nano-size individual HTS ceramic raw particles.
Inexpensive 3G HTS-YBCO round wire is as reliable and workable as copper wire but transmits at liquid nitrogen temperature 50x more electricity and 5 – 7x decreases power heat losses.
Comparison of the production (Pr) cost and market wholesale and retail price (Ma) of one meter in length of three types of electric wire transmitting dc electric current with minimized heat losses, which allow estimation of the market wholesale market price, as $10 for one meter of 3G HTS-YBCO filament.
3G HTS filament with diameter 60micron transmits without heat losses the same amount of electricity as #2 AWG market available copper wire with diameter 0.6cm.
* = current retail price of #2 AWG stranded copper wire
Comparison of the “production (Pr) cost” /”market retail price (Ma)” of one meter in length of three types of electric wire transmitting dc electric current with minimized heat losses. 3G HTS filament with diameter 60micron transmits without heat losses the same amount of electricity as #2 AWG market available copper wire with diameter 0.6cm.* = current retail price of #2 AWG stranded copper wire.
|Characteristics of electric wires||
Copper round wire
2G HTS tape
3G HTS round wore
|Engineering electric current carryingcapacity JE , kA/cm2
Pr/Ma Cost/Performance ratio, C/P, $/kA – m
Pr/Ma costs of wire with cross-section
Pr/Ma costs of wire with diameter
6mm = 0.6cm, $
Pr/Ma costs of wire filament with
diameter 60 micron = 0.006cm, $
15 / 55 [97*]
6 / 22 [39*]
2.3 / 8.4 [15*]
0.002 / 0.008 [0.015*]
75 / 100
750 – 1000
288 / 346
0.288 / 0.346
7 / 9
70 / 250
26.9 – 96
Resistivity and power dissipation for silver (red) and 3G HTS-YBCO silver substrate adhesion coated and sintered (green) strands at 77K and silver strand at 300K (blue) vs. current density.
A Year ago we have been granted by the paradigm-shifting US Patent #
8,197,565 “System of the chemical engineering processes generating energy and utilizing municipal solid waste or a carbon content mixture”, 14 Claims, July 2012.
“licensees and sponsors are welcome!”