Wear equation for adhesive wear established through elementary process of wear

Wear, Volume 308, Issues 1–2, 30 November 2013, Pages 186-192.

Hiroshi Mishina, Alan Hase.


Artificial Systems Science (Tribology Laboratory), Department of Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, 1-33, Yayoi, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522, Japan and

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Saitama Institute of Technology, 1690 Fusaiji, Fukaya, Saitama 369-0293, Japan.




The research covers the wear processes of adhesive wear from the origin of wear elements (the unitary debris of wear) with a size from a few nanometers to a few tens of nanometers to form transfer particles and lastly wear particles. These particles and wear phenomenon were observed by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Furthermore, the formation process of wear particles between the sliding surfaces was optically observed by means of an in situ observation system. From the results of observation of the wear process, we propose a basic wear model of the adhesive wear mechanism and present a wear equation for adhesive wear including physical properties of the sliding surfaces as well as the chemical effect of surrounding gas molecules to the surfaces.

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Additional Information: 

Proposed Mishina’ s wear equation.


Wear equations2

Where; V: wear volume, a: mean radius of junction, b: mean radius of wear elements, P: applied load, ℓ:

sliding distance, pm: yield stress of softer material, n: the number of wear elements generated in the real
contact area that is determined by physical adhesion factor, and λ: chemical activity.


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